La Huella de Desigualdad del Comercio de bienes finales: El caso de la economía mexicana.

Palabras clave: comercio, distribucion del ingreso, huella de desigualdad, México

Resumen

La relación entre comercio y desigualdad ha sido ampliamente estudiada, sin embargo, recientemente, surge el concepto de la “huella de la desigualdad” para medir cómo, a través del comercio internacional, la demanda final de bienes de un país requiere de la desigualdad de otros países de los cuales importa bienes finales. En este trabajo usando técnicas del análisis de insumo-producto,  se trazan curvas de Lorenz y  se calculan coeficientes de Gini asociados al comercio de bienes finales en México, con la intención de  contribuir al debate sobre la relación que existe entre comercio y distribución del ingreso, mediante la utilización del concepto “huella de la desigualdad”. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que, entre 1995 y  2011, la huella de desigualdad de la demanda final en México es mucho menor que la huella de desigualdad de la demanda final del resto del mundo. Sin embargo, las exportaciones de bienes finales mexicanos tienen una huella de desigualdad menor que las importaciones de bienes finales mexicanos. También se observa que la mayor parte  de la huella de desigualdad del comercio mexicano se explica por el hecho de que, entre niveles de capacitación, hay una distribución más homogénea de compensaciones al trabajo en las exportaciones de bienes finales mexicanos que en las importaciones de bienes finales. Las compensaciones al trabajo contenidas en las importaciones de bienes finales se encuentran altamente concentradas en los pagos a los trabajadores de media y alta capacitación.

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Publicado
2019-09-30