¿La innovación genera o destruye empleos? Una aplicación para las industrias manufacturera y de servicios.

  • Yurani Arias Granada Purdue University
  • Juan Felipe Mejia Universidad EAFIT
Palabras clave: Crecimiento del empleo, Innovación en procesos, Innovación en productos, Cambios organizaciones, Cambios en comercialización.

Resumen

Las empresas invierten y desarrollan innovaciones buscando principalmente ganancias; además crean nuevos productos o procesos buscando una mayor cuota de mercado. Por otro lado, los mercados laborales desempeñan un papel clave dentro de los países y las empresas para impulsar el crecimiento de la productividad y la innovación. De esta manera, es de suma importancia evaluar cómo el cambio tecnológico puede generar o destruir empleo. Estos efectos dependen de la dinámica detrás de la innovación y de factores como la velocidad de adopción, las industrias y sectores afectados, las habilidades necesarias o la velocidad de ajuste en la fuerza laboral (Pianta, 2006). En este sentido, esta investigación tiene como objetivo estimar como las empresas colombianas se ven afectadas con la introducción de varios tipos de innovaciones (de productos, de procesos, introducción de nuevos modelos organizacionales y de comercialización), y los efectos posteriores sobre el crecimiento del empleo. En particular, buscamos explorar si existe o no un efecto desplazamiento del empleo mediante la introducción de innovaciones en el contexto colombiano. Examinamos los efectos en varias categorías de empleo: calificado y no calificado, femenino y masculino, a tiempo completo y parcial. Asimismo, exploramos las heterogeneidades según el tamaño de la empresa, la intensidad de la innovación y las diferencias entre los sectores de industria y servicios.

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Publicado
2019-09-30